Gross Profit Ratio Formula, Calculation, and Example

For example, if you own a coffee shop, your revenue is the amount of money your customers pay for their coffee. A company’s gross profit will vary depending on whether it uses absorption costing or variable costing. There is a wide variety of profitability metrics that analysts and investors use to evaluate companies. Over 1.8 million professionals use CFI to learn accounting, financial analysis, modeling and more. Start with a free account to explore 20+ always-free courses and hundreds of finance templates and cheat sheets.

Gross profit may indicate a company is performing exceptionally well but must be mindful of the “below the line” costs when analyzing gross profit. Gross profit isolates the performance of the product or service it is selling. By stripping away the “noise” of administrative or operating costs, a company can think strategically about how its products perform or employ greater cost control strategies. Click on any of the CFI resources listed below to learn more about profit margins, revenues, and financial analysis. The two figures that are needed to calculate the gross profit ratio are the net sales and the gross profit.

  1. Read on to learn more about ratios that measure rates of return and use gross profits, operating profits, and net income.
  2. Your GPM will increase because lattes have lower COGS than flat whites—flat whites use more milk.
  3. Someone on our team will connect you with a financial professional in our network holding the correct designation and expertise.
  4. That is why it is almost always listed on front page of the income statement in one form or another.

In other words, it shows how efficiently a company can produce and sell its products. This gives investors a key insight into how healthy the company actually is. For instance, a company with a seemingly healthy net income on the bottom line could actually be dying. The gross profit percentage could be negative, and the net income could be coming from other one-time operations. The company could be losing money on every product they produce, but staying a float because of a one-time insurance payout. This metric is calculated by subtracting all COGS, operating expenses, depreciation, and amortization from a company’s total revenue.

An increase or decrease in your gross profit is an indicator of your business’s performance. Suppose we look at the financial statements of two businesses with the same amount of revenue but different gross profits. Consider the gross margin ratio for McDonald’s at the end of 2016 was 41.4%.

Parts of it will pay for your administrative costs such as rent, marketing, utilities, and salaries of employees not directly involved in making coffee. While there are several ways you can track and manage your cash flow, gross profit is one of the top contenders. You can use it to determine where you should scale up, and where you should cut back. If Company ABC finds a way to manufacture its product at one-fifth of the cost, it will command a higher gross margin because of its reduced costs of goods sold.

Conceptually, the gross income metric reflects the profits available to meet fixed costs and other non-operating expenses. Gross profit margin shows gross profit as a percentage of total sales. COGS doesn’t include costs such as rent, utilities, payroll taxes, credit card readers, and advertising. You don’t include these indirect costs because they aren’t considered the materials or services you need to directly make your product. It shows how effectively you use your resources—direct labor, raw materials, and other supplies—to produce end products. It helps you decide where you can save money and where you should invest it.

This ratio tells the business owner how well they’re minimising the cost of goods sold. The business’s operating profit margin (or operating margin) includes more expenses. Gross profit is typically used to calculate a company’s gross profit margin, which shows your gross profit as a percentage of total sales.

There is one downfall with this strategy as it may backfire if customers become deterred by the higher price tag, in which case, XYZ loses both gross margin and market share. Labour costs are a function of the hourly rate paid and the number of hours worked. And it’s tied closely to current economic conditions and the unemployment rate.


If a business converted all current assets into cash and used the cash to pay all current liabilities, any cash remaining is working capital. Depreciation expenses and taxes are listed in the income or profit & loss statement. Working capital and capital investments, however, are not income or profit & loss statement accounts. The capital investment balance is the dollars you’d need to maintain and replace assets over time. If a plumber generates $300,000 in sales a year, their goal is to maximise earnings (profit) generated from sales. Margin ratios explain how well the plumber generates profits from each dollar of sales.

What Are Acceptable Profit Margins?

This means that for every dollar of sales Monica generates, she earns 65 cents in profits before other business expenses are paid. That is why it is almost always listed on front page of the income statement in one form or another. Let’s take a look at how to calculate gross profit and what it’s used for.

Formula and Calculation of Gross Profit Margin

The ratio for the Bank of America Corporation at the end of 2016 was 97.8%. Comparing these two ratios will not provide any meaningful insight into how profitable McDonalds or the Bank of America Corporation is. Such businesses aim to cover their fixed costs and have a reasonable return on equity additional medicare tax by achieving a larger gross profit margin from a smaller sales base. A higher return on assets means that the company has a higher asset turnover or a higher profit margin, or both. To calculate return on assets, divide net income by average total assets and multiply by 100 to get a percentage.

To arrive at the gross profit total, the $100,000 in revenues would subtract $75,000 in cost of goods sold to equal $25,000. Gross profit, or gross income, equals a company’s revenues minus its cost of goods sold (COGS). It is typically used to evaluate how efficiently a company manages labor and supplies in production.

This means if she wants to be profitable for the year, all of her other costs must be less than $650,000. Conversely, Monica can also view the $650,000 as the amount of money that can be put toward other business expenses or expansion into new markets. From 2019 to 2021, Apple’s gross margin averaged approximately 39%, yet from our analysis, the company’s margins are particularly weighted down by the “Products” division. Therefore, like the use of valuation multiples on comps analysis, the gross profit must be converted into a percentage, i.e. the gross margin, as we illustrated earlier. Hence, the profit metric must be standardized by converting it into percentage form.

Reduce material costs

For example, if a company has a revenue of $10,000 and an operating income of $2,000, its operating margin is 20%. It shows how much of each dollar of sales is left after deducting the cost of goods sold. A higher gross margin means that the company has a lower production cost or a higher selling price, or both. To calculate gross margin, divide gross profit by revenue and multiply by 100 to get a percentage. For example, if a company has a revenue of $10,000 and a gross profit of $4,000, its gross margin is 40%. By subtracting its cost of goods sold from its net revenue, a company can gauge how well it manages the product-specific aspect of its business.

How to Calculate Gross Profit Ratio.

Net income is the profit earned after all expenses have been considered, while gross profit only considers product-specific costs of the goods sold. Companies strive for high gross profit margins as they indicate greater degrees of profitability. When a company has a higher profit margin, it means that it operates efficiently. It can keep itself at this level as long as its operating expenses remain in check. With all other things equal, a company has a higher gross margin if it sells its products at a premium. But this can be a delicate balancing act because if it sets its prices overly high, fewer customers may buy the product.

The formula measures a business’s ability to generate sufficient cash inflows to operate in the short term (six to 12 months). Gross margin focuses solely on the relationship between revenue and COGS. Net margin or net profit margin, on the other hand, is a little different. A company’s net margin takes all of a business’s expenses into account. Put simply, it’s the percentage of net income earned of revenues received. The gross profit method is an important concept because it shows management and investors how efficiently the business can produce and sell products.


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